russia's view on human trafficking

The problem of human trafficking has become a matter of serious concern for the entire civilized humanity. Media reported the arrest of a police officer accused of forcing an individual he arrested to work on the family farm. According to an international organization, children of migrant workers are vulnerable to forced labor in informal sectors. The government decreased already minimal law enforcement efforts. The Russian government strongly disagrees with this ranking, questioning the methodology of the report, which it claims results in “preformulated conclusions based on fragmentary evidence obtained from dubious sources,” thereby dissipating the effectiveness of the “humanitarian and human rights aspects of the report into slogans and labels.” These criticisms are reflected in a number of other stories published by RIA Novosti and the Russian News Agency TASS, the largest news agency in Russia and part of the government-owned media. A shelter “for women in difficult life situations,” run by the Russian Orthodox Church, continued to accept victims and offered them food, housing, and psychological care, although not medical assistance; the government did not provide financial support for the shelter. Tiurukanova, Institute for Urban Economics for the UN/IOM Working Group on Trafficking in Human Beings (UNICEF, ILO, CIDA) Availability View/save PDF version of this document Document type(s) Research/Study/Analysis, Broken down, it is a total of 13,392 persons trafficked a year; 36 trafficked every day; an average of one person trafficked an hour. All Rights Reserved, International History Declassified - Social Movements, Human Rights and US Foreign Policy with Sarah B. Snyder, A Present-Day Concentration Camp in Eastern Europe, High Time for Iran to Free its Political Prisoners, Nasrin Sotoudeh: The Pride and Moral Voice of Iran, A Story from Yemen: A Young Girl's Fight Against Child Marriage, The Repression Clock: A Strategy Behind Autocratic Regimes, Arnaud Kurze: Transforming Justice from the Bottom Up, Hyundai Motor-Korea Foundation Center for Korean History and Public Policy, Environmental Change and Security Program, North Korea International Documentation Project, Nuclear Proliferation International History Project, Kissinger Institute on China and the United States, The Middle East and North Africa Workforce Development Initiative, Science and Technology Innovation Program, Palermo Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, U.S. Department of State’s Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report, rooted in global patterns of economic and political injustice, Interviews conducted in Russia in 2012–2013, amid concerns of infringement on Russian sovereignty, preformulated conclusions based on fragmentary evidence obtained from dubious sources, scared many politicians away from this issue and from further policy development, provides protective services to African victims of human trafficking who are recruited to Russia and forced into prostitution, often at his own expense and notwithstanding threats on his life. do not take into account political and other factors, as a political statement lacking transparency and promoting U.S. political interests. Russian criminal groups threaten family members in order to coerce women into prostitution in Russia and abroad. Traffickers exploited this system to bring foreign sex trafficking victims into the country, especially from Nigeria; NGOs report many victims remain in Russia. Despite credible reports of forced labor and slave-like conditions of North Koreans working in Russia, the Russian government did not report any investigations into those conditions. 14-22. Traffickers exploit workers from Russia and other countries in Europe, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, China, and the DPRK in forced labor in Russia. The international organization noted migrants who were not able to complete the permit process were increasingly vulnerable to labor exploitation and trafficking due to their lack of proper documentation. An official website of the United States government, Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization, Office of the U.S. Hundreds of thousands of young women have vanished from their everyday lives-forced by violence into a hellish existence of brutality and prostitution. Subcontracting practices in Russia’s construction industry result in cases of non-payment or slow payment of wages, which leave workers at risk of labor trafficking. The government did not report screening specifically for indicators of trafficking, but media reports indicated the children received counseling. Pope Francis sends a message to an online seminar on human trafficking, and calls this form of modern-day slavery a scourge against human dignity. Russia has criminalised human trafficking in article 127.1 of the criminal code. position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments However, during the report period there was a government policy or pattern of forced labor; the total number of victims identified by the government remained negligible compared with the estimated scope of the issue; and authorities routinely penalized potential victims, including by detaining and deporting potential forced labor victims for immigration violations and prosecuting sex trafficking victims for prostitution offenses, without screening for signs of trafficking. On July 30 of every year, the world marks the World Day against Trafficking in Persons to help raise awareness on this issue.The US department which investigates countries for its annual Trafficking in Person report has classified 46 countries as Tier 3 from 2011 to 2018. Wives and children of foreign fighters are sold after their spouse or father is killed in action. *** "Russia is primarily a human trafficking source country for Gulf States and North America. Russia is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation. There were reports authorities often prosecuted trafficking crimes under related statutes, including Articles 240 (involvement in prostitution), 240.1 (receiving sexual services from a minor), and 241 (organization of prostitution), the penalties for which were generally lower than the penalties prescribed for trafficking offenses. This controversy over human trafficking in Russia goes beyond the fundamental flaws of the TIP report and has contributed to the erosion of relations between the United States and Russia. As in previous years, the government did not provide funding or programs for protective services dedicated to trafficking victims. Although labor trafficking remains the predominant human trafficking problem within Russia, sex trafficking continued. There were anecdotal reports the government provided anti-trafficking training to some of its diplomatic personnel. This paper elucidates the nuances of human trafficking, and the methods and mechanisms by which traffickers function, and people are trafficked. Lately, however, Eastern Europe has proven to be a haven for human traffickers. Employers sometimes bribe Russian officials to avoid enforcement of penalties for engaging illegal workers. During the 2018 World Cup, Russia relaxed its visa requirements, allowing all Fan ID holders to enter and exit Russia without a visa through December 31, 2018. The government continued to operate regional migration centers where migrants who did not also need visas to enter the country could obtain work permits directly from the government; however, an international organization estimated only half of eligible migrants obtained these permits as they entailed large upfront and monthly fees and sometimes required multiple time-consuming trips to the center. From its policy of silence on human trafficking, the passage of a number of laws aimed at closing shelters that assist trafficking victims, … Instead of reporting on the TIP Report Hero Award, the Russian media focused on other issues, including U.S. government accusations that the Russian government is not fighting human trafficking and its threats of sanctions for those assigned Tier 3 status. Corruption and official complicity in trafficking crimes remained significant concerns, inhibiting law enforcement action during the year. The Kennan Institute is committed to improving American understanding of Russia, Ukraine, and the region through research and exchange. The government maintained bilateral contracts with the DPRK government, which continued to operate work camps in Russia throughout 2019. Instead, the media focused on the report’s accusations that Russian-led separatists utilized children as young as 12 as informants and human shields in the Ukrainian conflict, the methodology of the report, and the stereotypes of Russia it claimed were perpetuated in the report. They're a profitable commodity in the multi-billion-dollar industry of modern slavery. The government had neither a designated lead agency to coordinate its anti-trafficking efforts nor a body to monitor its anti-trafficking activities or make periodic assessments measuring its performance. However, the government reported at least 1,000 DPRK workers remained in the country at the end of January 2020. Consequently, the policization of human trafficking in Russia and the Russian government’s inaction on the issue, epitomized in the media silence on the Hero Award, make the situation more dire for the victims. Sex camming in and of itself is on the rise. According to law enforcement statistics, of these 61 identified victims, 41 were female sex trafficking victims, four males were victims of forced labor, and 16 were children, although many of these were likely baby-selling cases not considered to be trafficking without the purpose of exploitation in sex trafficking or forced labor. Authorities treated foreign victims as illegal migrants and criminally charged them with prostitution or unlawful presence in country; many victims were detained or deported without being screened for trafficking indicators. NGOs provided all protection services, including shelter, food, legal services, basic medical and psychological support, interpretation, facilitating the return of documents or wages, and assisting in the resettlement or repatriation of victims, although few were able to provide specialized assistance specifically for trafficking victims. The Russian Code here defined human trafficking as: “The buying-selling of a person or other actions committed for the purpose of such person’s exploitation in the form of recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, or receipt of such a person.” Article 127.2 against slavery was later added. The government did not screen laborers for trafficking indicators or identify any North Korean trafficking victims, despite credible reports that the DPRK operated work camps in Russia and subjected thousands of North Korean workers to forced labor. An estimated 200 children had returned to Russia since this program first became public in 2017; media reports indicated the government repatriated 122 children in 2018-2019. Bipartisan support of anti-trafficking initiatives in the United States disguises the controversial nature of human trafficking, which is “rooted in global patterns of economic and political injustice.” Instead of being recognized as a moral issue that requires politicians to “rise above” political calculations, human trafficking is linked to such controversial topics as national security, illegal immigration, and prostitution. Authorities conducted scheduled and unannounced audits of firms employing foreign laborers to check for violations of immigration and labor laws—with penalties in the form of revoking foreign worker permits. The government did not develop or employ a formal system to guide officials in proactive identification of victims or their referral to available services, nor did it have a program to protect or support victims who participated in the investigation or prosecution of their alleged traffickers. People Smugglingis the organised, illegal movement of people across borders, usually on a payment for service basis. Several presidential programs, together with major pieces of legislation, address this issue, which is at the center of domestic public discussions; because of insufficient budget financing and restrictions on work of nongovernmental organizations, however, legislative declarations remain largely … This article has multiple issues. (2004). Similar to previous reporting periods, the government took steps to limit or ban the activities of civil society groups, including some dedicated to anti-trafficking activities, through measures such as “foreign agent” laws. Based on our research of 692 articles on human trafficking published in the Russian media since 1997, it is not surprising that with Russia’s low rating, the Russian media would not cover the TIP Report release. Since 2003, there have not been any additional laws passed surrounding human trafficking in Russia. Protection of children’s rights is a serious problem for Russia, particularly because of the worsening demographic situation and progressive involvement of youngsters in criminal and other underground activities. • Develop and implement formal national procedures to guide law enforcement, labor inspectors, and other government officials in identifying and referring victims to service providers, particularly among labor migrants and individuals in commercial sex, and screen for trafficking indicators among individuals arrested for commercial sex or immigration violations. In limited instances, Moscow city police informally provided “permit letters” valid for one year to individuals the police determined were trafficking victims. The government published sentencing information for these convictions that included, for article 127.1, four prison terms (five years and four months, four years and six months, four years and six months, two years) and two compulsory labor sentences (six years and four months, five years and six months) and for article 127.2, two prison terms (four years, three years and six months). We believe that this demonstrates how political the issue of human trafficking in Russia has become. Statistics are scarce, but data from Russia's Interior Ministry obtained by The Moscow Times contained about 900 cases of human trafficking, … Prevention campaigns were hampered by a law that made it a crime to talk to children younger than 16 about sexual issues and exploitation. There were limited examples of government cooperation with civil society. There are reports of widespread forced labor in brick factories in the Dagestan region. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Coordinator for the Arctic Region, Bureaus and Offices Reporting Directly to the Secretary, Office of the Coordinator for Cyber Issues, Office of the U.S. Authorities frequently prosecuted Russian and foreign victims of sex trafficking for engaging in commercial sex and did not take proactive measures to identify victims during raids on brothels. • Investigate and prosecute trafficking offenses and convict traffickers, including complicit officials and suspected trafficking cases related to North Korean workers in Russia, respecting due process. • Ensure screening among children returned from Iraq and Syria for child soldiering indicators and provide them with rehabilitation and reintegration support. The government did not make efforts to reduce the demand for commercial sex acts. Problems of Post-Communism: Vol. The law did not specifically define who is a trafficking victim or differentiate trafficking victims from victims of other crimes; experts noted this hindered identification measures and limited access to victim services. ILO reports that labor trafficking is the most predominant form of trafficking in Russia. In December 2019, the supreme court issued a clarification on cases including trafficking in persons that highlighted the criminal liability of those who recruit victims into trafficking situations, which experts hoped would increase the use of the criminal code to prosecute and convict traffickers. ISIS was known to use child soldiers and perpetrate other forms of trafficking. The U. S. Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report notes that the Russian government has taken steps to address the problem of trafficking. The award choice underscores the controversy behind the entire TIP Report rankings, which are seen by many as a political statement lacking transparency and promoting U.S. political interests. Human trafficking, also called trafficking in persons, form of modern-day slavery involving the illegal transport of individuals by force or deception for the purpose of labour, sexual exploitation, or activities in which others benefit financially.Human trafficking is a global problem affecting people of all ages. Russian authorities did not report cooperating in any new or ongoing international investigations in 2019. While these raids took place with some regularity, the use of undocumented or forced labor remained widespread due to complacency and corruption. According to press reports, 2.3 million Ukrainians resided in Russia, including more than one million who went east to escape Russian aggression in Ukraine. The plight of these people has become politicized by geopolitical adversaries, which are thereby shaping conditions for human trafficking victims in Russia. Women from Russia’s North Caucasus region as well as women from Central Asia residing in Russia have been recruited to join ISIS through online romantic relationships and are subjected to exploitation once they arrive. As of 2016, the Russian government stopped providing prosecution or victim rehabilitation data for the TIP Report. These penalties were sufficiently stringent and, with respect to sex trafficking, commensurate with punishments prescribed for other serious crimes, such as kidnapping. • Allocate funding to state bodies and anti-trafficking NGOs to provide specialized assistance and rehabilitative care to victims. Authorities reportedly pressured some victims to cooperate in investigations without any offer of protection. 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