The Spartan fleet under Callicratidas lost 70 ships and the Athenians lost 25 ships. Thus, Cyrus put all his means at the disposal of Lysander in the Peloponnesian War. The post off Pylos struck Sparta where it was weakest: its dependence on the helots, who tended the fields while its citizens trained to become soldiers. It was alleged that the Megarians had desecrated the Hiera Orgas. The Athenians crushed the revolt, and peace was maintained. After arriving in Sicily, Alcibiades was recalled to Athens for trial. Spa rta. SURVEY . Athens Vs. Sparta By: Suhansh Bijlani Among ancient Greece cities, two significant cities were Athens and Sparta, Sparta had the brawls, and Athens had the brains. With the treasury and emergency reserve fund of 1,000 talents dwindling away, the Athenians were forced to demand even more tribute from her subject allies, further increasing tensions and the threat of further rebellion within the Empire. 4 0 obj  The Spartans, whose intervention would have been the trigger for a massive war to determine the fate of the empire, called a congress of their allies to discuss the possibility of war with Athens. The Athenians did not act solely from altruism: rallied on by Alcibiades, the leader of the expedition, they held visions of conquering all of Sicily. They had a few things in common, and throughout history, they were at war with each other for domination and supremacy. Then, they must read scenarios and decide what city-state they would want to join Sparta killed babies who werent strong enough and Spartans were told to serve their country before family. 1 0 obj /CA 1.0 After the death of Pericles, the Athenians turned somewhat against his conservative, defensive strategy and to the more aggressive strategy of bringing the war to Sparta and its allies. The economic costs of the war were felt all across Greece; poverty became widespread in the Peloponnese, while Athens was completely devastated, and never regained its pre-war prosperity. The Corinthians, the Spartans, and others in the Peloponnesian League sent more reinforcements to Syracuse, in the hopes of driving off the Athenians; but instead of withdrawing, the Athenians sent another hundred ships and another 5,000 troops to Sicily. More battles ensued and again, the Syracusans and their allies defeated the Athenians. Athens vs. Sparta. The trial resulted in the execution of six of Athens's top naval commanders. In this phase, Sparta, now receiving support from the Achaemenid Empire, supported rebellions in Athens's subject states in the Aegean Sea and Ionia, undermining Athens's empire, and, eventually, depriving the city of naval supremacy. Unlike some of his predecessors the new Spartan general, Lysander, was not a member of the Spartan royal families and was also formidable in naval strategy; he was an artful diplomat, who had even cultivated good personal relationships with the Achaemenid prince Cyrus the Younger, son of Emperor Darius II. A further source of provocation was an Athenian decree, issued in 433/2 BC, imposing stringent trade sanctions on Megarian citizens (once more a Spartan ally after the conclusion of the First Peloponnesian War). Thasos was an island in northern Aegean and a member of the Delian League which had disagreements with Athens about control of precious metal mines and trade on the mainland. These two city-states had few similarities but were contrasted in many, many ways. Roughly one-third to two-thirds of the Athenian population died. The Athenians felt obliged to assist their ally. /Length 7 0 R , The Thirty Years' Peace was first tested in 440 BC, when Athens's powerful ally Samos rebelled from its alliance with Athens. by A.H. Clough. Early Spartan attempts to break up the coalition failed, and the leadership of the Spartan king Agis was called into question.  The Corinthians, outraged by these actions, encouraged Potidaea to revolt and assured them that they would ally with them should they revolt from Athens. Athens Vs Sparta: who is Superior. Ed. /Height 155 3/7 Due: 3/22/13 Envision a world where the people are ravenous and yearning for any remnant of food they could obtain, where … The plague wiped out over 30,000 citizens, sailors and soldiers, including Pericles and his sons. In Athens people worship their minds. Sparta was based on oligarchy and had two rulers. For a short period of time, Athens was ruled by the "Thirty Tyrants", and democracy was suspended. Athens Homework! Both Brasidas and Cleon were killed in Athenian efforts to retake Amphipolis (see Battle of Amphipolis). Nicias and Demosthenes marched their remaining forces inland in search of friendly allies. HAVE FUN! Only twelve Athenian ships escaped, and several of these sailed to Cyprus, carrying the strategos (general) Conon, who was anxious not to face the judgment of the Assembly. Bury remarks, the Peloponnesians would have considered it the "Attic War".. But, due to bad weather, the Athenians were unable to rescue their stranded crews or finish off the Spartan fleet. Check Out This Informative Sparta Vs. Athens Comparison Chart. In 403 BC, the oligarchs were overthrown and a democracy was restored by Thrasybulus. In Sparta people worship their bodies. Main Differences Between Athens and Sparta. After his defection, Alcibiades claimed to the Spartans that the Athenians planned to use Sicily as a springboard for the conquest of all of Italy and Carthage, and to use the resources and soldiers from these new conquests to conquer the Peloponnese. At the Battle of Sybota, a small contingent of Athenian ships played a critical role in preventing a Corinthian fleet from capturing Corcyra. in Xenophon, Plutarch. Athens and Sparta comparison activity. The delay was costly and forced the Athenians into a major sea battle in the Great Harbor of Syracuse. 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