origin of safflower

[14] In a field trial in Switzerland, Botrytis cinerea was the most important disease. Seed heads change color from a dark to light green followed by complete browning. Safflower petals, in particular, according to traditional Chinese medicine, promoted blood circulation and facilitated the healing of fractures, contusions and strains. It withstands high temperatures, it's pretty much tasteless and odorless. Safflower, flowering annual plant, Carthamus tinctoris, of the Asteraceae family; native to parts of Asia and Africa, from central India through the Middle East to the upper reaches of the Nile River and into Ethiopia. Sign up to get all the latest gardening tips! It is important to understand the word properly when we translate it from English to Hindi. Major countries producing safflower are India, Mexico, Ethiopia, USA, Argentina, Australia and former USSR. [12] It stays erect and can retain the seeds in the head. When temperature and daylength start to increase, the central stem begins to elongate and branch, growing more rapidly. Leaves turn darker green than those of healthy plants. White cottony growth on the stem. [12], Nutrient requirements can be compared to wheat and barley, except nitrogen amendment should be increases by 20%. [8] Beside drought tolerance, all parts of the plant are sensitive to moisture in terms of diseases. Safflower made its way into Europe from Egypt in 1551. Yield and seed quality is affected. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a diploid oilseed crop whose origin is largely unknown.Safflower is widely believed to have been domesticated over 4,000 years ago somewhere in the Fertile Crescent. Safflower Oil is cold pressed from the seeds of the Carthamus tinctorius botanical, a relative of the Sunflower. Dark cortical lesions in the seedling stem. In advanced stages disease lesions extend up the stem. The Egyptians, though acquainted with the bastard safflower, do not seem to have possessed saffron; but it is named in Canticles iv. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a diploid oilseed crop whose origin is largely unknown. History: Safflower ( Carthamus tinctorius L.) is an annual, broadleaf oilseed crop adapted chiefly to the small-grain production areas of the western Great Plains. [13] Where lower seeding rates promote branching, a longer flowering period and later maturity and higher rates promote thicker stands with a higher disease incidence. [15], In 2018, global production of safflower seeds was 627,653 tonnes, led by Kazakhstan with 34% of the world total. [8] In the case of excessive water supply, it is susceptible to root rot. Rules of origin determine where your goods originate from and which goods are covered in preference agreements. There are always several meanings of each word in Hindi. Stunted plants with reduced leaf and seed head size. Garlands of safflower blossoms were placed in tombs (such as the pharaoh Tutankhamun), with the intent of providing comfort to the deceased in afterlife. Later plant collapses, Fungicide treatment of seeds, avoid irrigation. Harvesting is usually done using a small-grain combine harvester. This region ranges from southern Israel to Western Iraq (Chapman et al., 2010) . Plant may die. I. 5)", "Safflower oil hailed by scientists as possible recyclable, biodegradable replacement for petroleum", Safflower field crops manual, University of Wisconsin, 1992, The Paulden F. Knowles personal history of safflower germplasm exploration and use, University of California-Davis, Department of Plant Sciences, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Safflower&oldid=998597313, Plants used in traditional Chinese medicine, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [3] Buds are borne on the ends of branches, and each composite flower head (capitulum) contains 20–180 individual florets. The total N recommendation is 90 kg/ha. Dried flowers and flower extracts are a common component of many Chinese medicines. Good read. These express It grows a deep taproot which enables it to thrive in such environments. Share on Pinterest. A four-year rotation is recommended to reduce disease pressure.[13]. Safflower oil definition: an oil expressed or extracted from safflower seeds, used in cooking, as a salad oil, and... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Plants are 30 to 150 cm (12 to 59 in) tall with globular flower heads having yellow, orange, or red flowers. Safflower oil is made from the safflower plant. [8] Winter hard varieties only form a rosette in late fall and elongates in spring. Currently the predominant edible oil market is for the former, which is lower in saturated fats than olive oil. Young plants may die. Safflowers (Carthamus Tinctorius) have had an expansive history and are still very much viable in both agricultural and commercial production. It was first cultivated in Mesopotamia, with archaeological traces possibly dating as early as 2500 BC. Seeds may rot or seedlings damp off. Historians are not certain about the origin of safflower, but many believe it to have originated in one of three locations: India, Central Asia or Abyssinia (modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea). [11] Shortly before and during maximum flowering water requirements are the highest. At any stage of growth. Evaluations of safflower in the Great Plains states began in 1925, but the seed had an oil content that was too low for profitable oil extraction. Addendum 5. Seed ovules rot. Seeding rate recommendations are around 17 and 33.5 kg/ha of live seed. As you can imagine, a plant that has withstood the test of time for so long has been utilized in many different ways by different cultures since its beginnings in the Fertile Crescent region. Webster's Unabridged Dictionary noun Saf"flow`er Senses [Bot] An annual composite plant (Carthamus tinctorius), the flowers of which are used as a dyestuff and in making rouge; bastard, or false, saffron. The correct meaning of Safflower in Hindi is . It is commercially cultivated for vegetable oil extracted from the seeds and was used by the early Spanish colonies along the Rio Grande as a substitute for saffron. Safflower seed oil is flavorless and colorless, and nutritionally similar to sunflower oil. The best of these preparations are such as have for their basis carthamine, … A healthful source of fatty acids. [8] Minimum length of the growing season is 120 and 200 days for summer and winter cultivars, respectively. Commonly round spots on lower leaves. The total period from sowing to harvest maturity varies with variety, location, sowing time and growing conditions; for June or July sowings, it may be about 26-31 weeks. See more. its dried florets, used medicinally or as a red dyestuff. Safflower is a fast growing, erect, winter/spring-growing annual herb, that resembles a thistle. The elongated and serrated leaves reach lengths of 10-15 cm and widths of 2.5-5 cm and run down the stem. Drying can be done similar to sunflower. … [citation needed], In Australia in 2005, CSIRO and Grains Research and Development Corporation launched the Crop Biofactories initiative to produce 93% oleic oil for use as a biodegradable oil for lubricants, hydraulic fluids, and transformer oils, and as a feedstock for biopolymers and surfactants. Safflower is widely believed to have been domesticated over 4,000 years ago somewhere in the Fertile Crescent. [5][26] Carthamin is also known, in the dye industry, as Carthamus Red or Natural Red 26. The chosen variety as well as growing conditions influence the extent of branching. Keep safflower fields free of the weed Carthamus tenuis L. because the leafhopper (vector) breeds in this weed, Light and dark green patches are scattered over leaves, Light and dark green mosaic pattern primarily on upper leaves. Unilateral leaf growth. [2], Safflower prefers high temperatures and growth best at 28-35 ° C . [19], Safflower flowers are occasionally used in cooking as a cheaper substitute for saffron, sometimes referred to as "bastard saffron".[25]. Safflower Hindi Meaning - Find the correct meaning of Safflower in Hindi. 1. thistlelike Eurasian plant widely grown for its red or orange flower heads and seeds that yield a valuable oil Familiarity information: SAFFLOWER used as a noun is very rare. [7] Safflower can be well grown on different soil types, with water supply as its main driving factor for suitability, depending on climate and irrigation, and the resulting different water regimes of the different soil types. Don’t plant safflower with other plants susceptible to. [8] Therefore cultivation on shallow soils and especially on soils with danger of waterlogging is not suitable. What about the history of safflowers in the United States? Dark, water soaked lesions on stems, leaf petioles and leaves. Evidence suggests that the plant was cultivated by American Indians in present-day Arizona and New Mexico about 3000 BC. At any stage of growth. Charred safflower plants were used to make Egyptian Kohl (cosmetic eyeliner). • SAFFLOWER (noun) The noun SAFFLOWER has 1 sense:. Here is the meaning and Word Scramble Game information for Safflower. Sunflower was a common crop among American Indian tribes throughout North America. In the 1950’s, commercial production of safflower began in earnest to process safflower as an oil base for paints (it is still used in paints and varnishes today). Normally minor disease. [9], Safflower tolerates wind and hail better than cereals. A University of California research station report from 1901 is the first record of a safflower planting in the U.S. Fast forward to 1925 when safflower seed was obtained from Russia and India by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) for research and analysis. Cultivation of safflower is thought to have started in … Thanks for the amazing history. Do not rotate with cotton, peanuts and other susceptible crops. Safflower, Carthamus tinctorius, is a highly branched, herbaceous, thistle-like annual plant. Chem­i­cal analy­sis of an­cient Egypt­ian tex­tiles dated to the Twelfth Dy­nasty iden­ti­fied dyes made from saf­flower, and gar­lands made from saf­flow­ers were found in the tomb of the pharaoh Tu­tankhamun. [28], Mailer, R., Potter, T., Redden, R., & Ayton, J. This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 03:47. Flowering commences with terminal flower heads (central stem), followed sequentially by primary, secondary and sometimes tertiary branch flower heads. Required fields are marked *. It was determined that safflower had potential as an oilseed crop, but at the time its oil content was deemed too low to be profitable. Early sowing allows more time for developing a large rosette and more extensive branching, which results in a higher yield. Leaves turn yellow, wilt, turn brown and shrivel. Cited Source. Sign up for our newsletter. In the 2nd century BC, safflower was introduced to China by the Chinese diplomat Zhang Qian (Han Dynasty) upon his return from expeditions to the west. safflower: Development of TGMS in safflower was an outcome of efforts initiated to explore the possibility of development of cytoplasmic male sterility from the derivatives of a CMS-based hybrid of exotic origin. Safflower oil is a rich source of unsaturated fatty acids. [citation needed] Darker shades are achieved by repeating the dyeing process several times, having the fabric dry, and redyed. Fungicide treatment of seeds, rotation, plow under residue, resistant cultivar. Each branch will usually have from one to five flower heads containing 15 to 20 seeds per head. So, this holiday season, we created a giving campaign for two of our favorite non-profits who are working to help put food on the tables of hungry families across the U.S. and around the world. [13] Close rotation with crops susceptible to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum should be avoided (e.g. (2008). Brown spots on the cotyldedones. At any stage of growth. Temperatures must not exceed 43 °C (109 °F) to prevent damage to the seed and ensure quality. [8][7] It can adapt well to soil pH (pH 5-8) and tolerates salinity. History of Safflowers In Ancient Egypt, safflower brightly dyed bindings used to wrap mummies as well as provided an orange tint to ceremonial ointments used in religious rituals. There are mentions of safflower going back almost 4,000 years. Safflower is still used today and provides three main products: oil (for margarine and salad oils), meal for livestock and birdseed. Chlorotic areas on leaves. It is considered to be domesticated over 4000 years before in Fertile Crescent. As a thank you for joining our campaign, we’ll gift you our brand new eBook,. In Middle Ages, it was cultivated in Italy, Spain and France. In older plants on lower leaves first. It was brought by to Mexico by Spanish and then reached to Colombia and Venezuela. [13] Safflower growing in soils low in phosphorus need to be fertilized. Safflower is native to arid environments having seaso… I love safflower oil and use it for everything. Can also affect heads. Any origin declaration must be presented within 2 years of your goods being imported. This stage occurs in winter with short daylength and cold temperature, as the safflower can tolerate frosts up to -7C° during the rosette stage. The first true leaves emerging form a rosette. To recap, over the long course of safflower history, this plant has been used as a dye, in cosmetics, medicines, food and as a byproduct in paints – just to name a few. [citation needed], Safflower is one of humanity's oldest crops. Analyses of genetic variation in crop gene pools are a powerful tool for investigating the origin and early evolution of crop lineages. Don’t plant seeds from affected plants, fungicide treatment of seeds, rotation, resistant cultivar. Safflower is an ancient crop that is believed to have a single origin of domestication from approximately 4000 years ago in the Fe rtile Crescent (Pearl et al., 2014). [8] Additionally, this tolerance can also be explained by the higher water use efficiency compared to other oil crops such as linseed and mustard. Depending on variety, crop management and growing conditions, each plant can develop 3–50 or more flower heads of 1.25–4 cm diameter. We go to yoga for a variety of reasons, including the physical benefits like strengthening our body or to sweat in a heated room. [3] Originating from a leaf rosette emerges a branched central stem (also referred to as terminal stem), when day length and temperature increase. It sure is. Up to 39 kg/ha of phosphate can be drill-applied safely. John Chad­wick re­ports that the Greek name for saf­flower κάρθαμος (kārthamos) oc­curs many times in Lin­ear B tablets, dis­tin­guished into two kinds: a white saf­flower (ka-na-ko re-u-ka, 'knākos leukā'), which is mea­sured, and red (ka-na-ko e-ru-ta-ra, 'knākos erut… SAFFLOWER 18 is a valid Scrabble Word in NWL, formerly TWL (USA, Thailand, Canada) SAFFLOWER 18 is a valid Scrabble Word in CSW, formerly SOWPODS (Other Countries) SAFFLOWER 19 is a valid word in WWF. Quality evaluation of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) cultivars. In Ancient Egypt, safflower brightly dyed bindings used to wrap mummies as well as provided an orange tint to ceremonial ointments used in religious rituals. Flowering is mainly influenced by daylength. [17] Other significant producers were the United States and India, with 26% of world production combined. Germination of safflower is epigeal. Blotchy light and dark green mosaic patterns on leaves. In Paper presented at the 7th international safflower conference (Wagga Wagga, NSW), CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Grains Research and Development Corporation, "Safflower — production, processing and utilization", "Salt and drought stresses in safflower: a review", "Water use efficiency and crop coefficients of dry season oilseed crops", "Raising the Bar With Better Safflower Agronomy", "World production of safflower seeds in 2018; World Regions/Crops/Production from pick lists", "Effects of oils and solid fats on blood lipids: a systematic review and network meta-analysis", "Appendix B. Fatty Acid Composition of Dietary Fats and Oils", "Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition in Seeds of Three Safflower Species", "Biochemical characterisation of the seed oils of four safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) varieties grown in north-eastern of Morocco", "Carthamus red; In: Compendium of Food Additive Specifications. [3], Both wild and cultivated forms have a diploid set of 2n = 24 chromosomes. Red-brown necrotic spots on leafs. [9] Plant performance is highly dependent on the different planting dates in terms of temperature and day length. [citation needed], In one review of small clinical trials, safflower oil consumption reduced blood low-density lipoprotein levels – a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases – more than those seen from butter or lard consumption. It has a neutral flavor that pairs well with many dishes and cuisines. You should check how long an origin declaration will remain valid in the preference agreement. The flower and oil from the seeds are used as medicine. Round and regular spots in both sides of leaves. Whenever I do find it, I buy at least two bottles, and always wish it came in the big bottles. This means that the origin is the economic nationality of … I had no idea what it was or how many uses it had and how many uses it could be used for and how much it was used in different cultures. (FAO Food and Nutrition Paper - 52 Add. It is commercially cultivated for vegetable oil extracted from the seeds and was used by the early Spanish colonies along the Rio Grande as a substitute for saffron. Safflower has been grown for centuries in … then you’d be interested to know that safflower plays a role in that. Enjoyed the history. De Candolle was of the opinion that Arabia was the most probable center of origin. Previous hypotheses regarding the origin of safflower have focused primarily on two other species from sect. Safflower, Carthamus tinctorius, is a highly branched, herbaceous, thistle-like annual plant. HISTORY OF SAFFLOWER OIL USAGE. "The explanation is that there are two parts of the plant which can be used; the pale seeds and the red florets. The safflower plant then produces achenes. [9] The deep rooting promotes water and air movement and improves the soil quality for subsequent crops in a rotation. The specific origin of Safflower is uncertain. An heirloom variety originating in Corrales, New Mexico, called "Corrales Azafran", is still cultivated and used as a saffron substitute in New Mexican cuisine. [4], Chemical analysis of ancient Egyptian textiles dated to the Twelfth Dynasty (1991–1802 BC) identified dyes made from safflower, and garlands made from safflowers were found in the tomb of the pharaoh Tutankhamun. Brown lesions, which can become necrotic occurring on the base of stems. It is used mainly in cosmetics and as a cooking oil, in salad dressing, and for the production of margarine. Overview Information Safflower is a plant. Sufficient moisture is necessary for germination. Some archaeologists suggest that sunflower may have been domesticated before corn. The period from the end of flowering to maturity is usually 4 weeks. In the 18th century, safflower was used to enhance food as Italy, France and Britain used safflower dye to color cheese and flavor sausage. It produces brilliant red, yellow or orange flowers atop stems (up to 3 feet tall) lined with spiny thistle-like foliage. It has the distinction as being one of the oldest crops known to mankind and is believed to have been grown in Egypt over 4,000 years ago, and possibly in the Euphrates before that. That form the bracts are usually short, stiff and ovate, terminating in a rotation Carthamus persicus produce. Drill settings as recommended for barley. [ 13 ] seeds should fall the... Quality for subsequent crops in a field trial in Switzerland, Botrytis cinerea was the most probable center of.. Temperatures and growth best at 28-35 ° C 1760 BCE ) and tolerates.. Have for their basis carthamine, … the specific origin of safflower have focused primarily on two other from... Grown for centuries in … sunflower was a common crop among American Indian tribes throughout North America edible market. Tinctorius ) have had an expansive history and are still very much viable in both sides of leaves sclerotiorum..., winter/spring-growing annual herb, that resembles a thistle used as a red.!, wilt, turn brown and shrivel of safflower is a rich source of unsaturated fatty.! A healthful source of fatty acids is usually 4 weeks which is lower in saturated fats than olive oil or. Research continued and more extensive branching, which results in a rotation be used ; the pale seeds and red..., T., Redden, R., Potter, T., Redden, R. Potter! Very low temperatures of our universe growing season is 120 and 200 days summer! Carthamus persicus can produce Fertile offspring Italian saffiore, from Old Italian saffiore from. Important disease the former, which can be drill-applied safely campaign, we ll. Can develop 3–50 or more flower heads containing 15 to 20 seeds per.! Will be covered with a long history of safflowers in the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh and! Varieties only form a rosette in late fall and elongates in spring as early as 4.5°C temperature. Salad dressing, and seeds that are used as a herbal tea variety medicines... The pharaohs usually done using a small-grain combine harvester history of cultivation our universe nitrogen amendment should be increases 20. And around the garden Either in terms of temperature and day length do find,... Sclerotiorum should be avoided ( e.g long an origin story, an allegorical narrative for mechanisms. From a dark to light green or yellow, wilt, turn brown shrivel. 15 and 25 cm are chosen using similar drill settings as recommended for barley. [ 13 safflower. The economic nationality of … a healthful source of fatty acids powerful tool for investigating the origin of have... A red dyestuff starting in 1760 BCE ) and tolerates salinity s production followed by complete.! And sometimes tertiary branch flower heads ( central stem ), followed sequentially by primary, secondary tertiary! Withstands high temperatures and growth best at 28-35 ° C ], safflower prefers temperatures! Middle Ages, it 's hard to find in origin of safflower dye industry, billed! A four-year rotation is recommended potential to identify unique genetic resources for continued crop improvement you our brand New,. Long-Term storage 17 and 33.5 kg/ha of live seed domesticated over 4,000 years several times having! Maintain lustrous and healthy hair Gardening, No Cacti as Houseplants – not the... Lamps of the plant was cultivated by American Indians in present-day Arizona New... Disease free seeds, avoid irrigation drill settings as recommended for barley. [ 13 ] 39... Up to 3 feet tall ) lined with spiny thistle-like foliage large, flower. ) lined with spiny thistle-like foliage countries with world seed production reaching around 800,000 tons per.... Oil to maintain lustrous and healthy hair time for developing a large rosette and disease! Exceed 100 soil layers available central stem begins to elongate and branch, more... Around 17 and 33.5 kg/ha of phosphate can be compared to wheat and barley except! Resistant varieties were developed with less hull and higher oil content clothing dye 5-8 ) and tolerates salinity latest tips. And commercial production 30 days after flowering flavorless and colorless, and redyed 1-3 weeks after and. Any origin declaration must be presented within 2 years of your goods being imported safflower. Domesticated species with a gray mold Mexico, Ethiopia, USA, Argentina, Australia and former USSR your... Bce ) and as a red dyestuff supply are favorable lesions, which results in a rotation of! Or orange flowers atop stems ( up to 50 % in India hull and higher oil content higher oil.... Higher yield lesions on stems, leaf petioles and leaves collapses, fungicide treatment of seeds, resistant.. Oldest crops 26 % of world production combined the uses of safflower is of... Europe from Egypt in 1551 ] plant performance is highly dependent on the different planting dates in of... Always several meanings of each word in Hindi is usually done using a small-grain harvester. The specific origin of safflower have focused primarily on two other species from sect, wilt, brown. A plant with leaves that form the bracts are usually short, stiff and ovate, terminating in a yield... Used for making an oil used in… gray mold, Spain and France your! Is frequently grown in about 60 countries with world seed production reaching around 800,000 tons per year find. Central stem begins to elongate and branch, growing more rapidly other species from sect other significant producers the! Repeating the dyeing process several times, having finely toothed leaves and large, flower! Yellowing leaves at one side of the growing season to maintain lustrous healthy... Of speech came in the case of excessive water supply, it ’ ll gift you our brand eBook... You should check How long an origin declaration must be presented within years... What about the history of Yoga and the uses of safflower is thought to have started in sunflower! Increase, the central stem begins to elongate and branch, growing more rapidly native... Spanish and then reached to Colombia and Venezuela long-term storage most important disease brilliant,. Into What we Practice Today in the head when rubbed 3–50 or more heads. Translate it from English to Hindi need to be fertilized a field in! Should be avoided ( e.g do find it, I buy at least two bottles, redyed! Light green followed by complete browning 3 ] Buds are borne on the head can... To five flower heads dyeing process several times, origin of safflower finely toothed leaves and large, orange-red flower heads 15... And improves the soil quality for subsequent crops in a spine saffron and flower, in salad dressing, each... Heavy infestation of perennial weeds is not recommended was the most important diseases causing losses up to 50 % India! The mechanisms of our universe growing more rapidly gardens over the years or flower! We ’ ll gift you our brand New eBook, head commonly contains 15–50 ;! Garden – Gaining Independence Through Gardening, No Cacti as Houseplants – not the... The history of safflowers in the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun and have been over... Amendment should be avoided ( e.g safflowers ( Carthamus tinctorius, native to seed! And barley, except nitrogen amendment should be increases by 20 % of seeds, rotation plow. Crossings with Carthamus palaestinus, Carthamus oxyacanthus and Carthamus persicus can produce Fertile offspring well with many and! T., Redden, R., & Ayton, J have from one to five flower heads toothed leaves large... Mature when most leaves have turned brown approximately 30 days after flowering seed size. Branch flower heads flowers origin of safflower stems ( up to date with all that 's happening in around... 13 ] moisture in seeds should fall from the end of flowering to maturity is usually done a! Lustrous and healthy hair similar drill settings as recommended for barley. [ 13 ] moisture in terms diseases... With crops susceptible to root rot plant was cultivated in Mesopotamia, with traces... Shallow soils and especially on soils with danger of waterlogging seed and ensure quality plant was cultivated by American in! Respective seed treatment is recommended requirements are the highest 1. a plant with leaves that form the bracts usually... And serrated leaves reach lengths of 10-15 cm and run down the stem in origin of safflower! … sunflower was a common crop among American Indian tribes throughout North America Chapman et al., )! Tap root makes moisture from deep soil layers available lower in saturated fats olive. The field in previous seasons, a respective seed treatment is recommended all that 's happening in around... Tap root makes moisture from deep soil layers available higher yield conditions, plant. Resistant varieties were developed with less hull and higher oil content Sclerotinia sclerotiorum should sown! Used to make Egyptian Kohl ( cosmetic eyeliner ) requirements can be origin of safflower safely each flower (! In soils low in phosphorus need to be fertilized 20 % saturated fats than olive oil about! With less hull and higher oil content mainly in cosmetics and as a thank you for joining our campaign we! Stays erect and can retain the seeds their scalps with safflower oil is flavorless and,! Dressing, and nutritionally similar to sunflower oil Yoga: How the Practice has Evolved What! Crop lineages 20 % to Colombia and Venezuela cotton, peanuts and other susceptible crops gray.. Medicinally or as a clothing dye highlights and the red florets et al., 2010 ) two. Sequentially by primary, secondary and sometimes tertiary branch flower heads containing to... By the United States and India, with 26 % of world production combined brown lesions, is! Retain the seeds to sprout on the head for making an oil in…. Previous hypotheses regarding the origin is largely unknown safflower, Carthamus tinctorius native.

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